Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric With Readings, Brief Edition, Mla Update Edition

Paperback | July 13, 2016

byJohn D. Ramage, John C. Bean, June Johnson

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For courses in Argument and Research.
This version of Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Brief has been updated the reflect the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook (April 2016) *

Teach students to read arguments critically and to produce effective arguments
Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Brief Edition, Tenth Edition integrates four different approaches to argument: the enthymeme as a logical structure, the classical concepts of logos, pathos, and ethos, the Toulmin system, and stasis theory. Focusing on argument as dialogue in search of solutions instead of a pro-con debate with winners and losers, it is consistently praised for teaching the critical thinking skills needed for writing arguments. Major assignment chapters each focus on one or two classical stases (e.g. definition, resemblance, causal, evaluation, and policy). Each concept is immediately reinforced with discussion prompts, and each chapter ends with multiple comprehensive writing assignments. This brief version contains exemplary readings within the chapters but excludes the anthology included in the comprehensive version. Also available in a Comprehensive version (032190673X) and a Concise version (0321964284) which is a redaction of the Brief edition.
 
* The 8th Edition introduces sweeping changes to the philosophy and details of MLA works cited entries. Responding to the “increasing mobility of texts,” MLA now encourages writers to focus on the process of crafting the citation, beginning with the same questions for any source. These changes, then, align with current best practices in the teaching of writing which privilege inquiry and critical thinking over rote recall and rule-following.

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For courses in Argument and Research. This version of Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Brief has been updated the reflect the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook (April 2016) * Teach students to read arguments critically and to produce effective arguments Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings, Brief Edition, T...

John Ramage received his BA in philosophy from Whitman College and his Ph.D. in English from Washington State University. He served for over thirty years on the faculties of Montana State University and Arizona State University. In addition to his teaching duties, which included both graduate and undergraduate courses in writing and...
Format:PaperbackDimensions:448 pages, 9 × 7.4 × 0.5 inPublished:July 13, 2016Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

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ISBN - 10:0134586506

ISBN - 13:9780134586502

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Table of Contents

PART ONE: OVERVIEW OF AN ARGUMENT

1    Argument: An Introduction    
What Do We Mean by Argument?    
Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel    
Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate    
Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit    
JUAN LUCAS (STUDENT), “An Argument Against Banning Phthalates”    
A student opposes a ban on a chemical that makes toys soft and flexible.
The Defining Features of Argument    
Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims    
Argument Is Both a Process and a Product    
Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion    
Argument and the Problem of Truth    
Conclusion    

2    Argument as Inquiry: Reading and Exploring    
Finding Issues to Explore    
Do Some Initial Brainstorming    
Be Open to the Issues All around You    
Explore Ideas by Freewriting    
Explore Ideas by Idea Mapping    
Explore Ideas by Playing the Believing and Doubting Game    
Reading Texts Rhetorically    
Genres of Argument    
Authorial Purpose and Audience    
Determining Degree of Advocacy    
Reading to Believe an Argument’s Claims    
JAMES SUROWIECKI, “The Pay Is Too Damn Low”    
An American journalist argues for an increased federally mandated minimum wage combined with government policies to promote job growth and ensure a stable safety net for the poor.
 Summary Writing as a Way of Reading to Believe    
Practicing Believing: Willing Your Own Belief in the Writer’s Views    
Reading to Doubt    
Thinking Dialectically    
MICHAEL SALTSMAN, “To Help the Poor, Move Beyond ‘Minimum’ Gestures”    
The chief economist for the Employment Policy Institute opposes an increased minimum wage, arguing that it does nothing for the jobless poor and will in fact lead to increased joblessness.
Three Ways to Foster Dialectic Thinking    
Conclusion    
Writing Assignment: An Argument Summary or a Formal Exploratory Essay    
Reading    
TRUDIE MAKENS (STUDENT), “Should Fast-Food Workers Be Paid $15 per Hour?”    
Examining articles by Surowiecki, Saltsman, and others, a student narrates the evolution of her thinking as she researches the issue of minimum wage.

PART TWO: WRITING AN ARGUMENT

3    The Core of an Argument: A Claim with Reasons    
The Classical Structure of Argument    
Classical Appeals and the Rhetorical Triangle    
Issue Questions as the Origins of Argument    
Difference between an Issue Question and an Information Question    
How to Identify an Issue Question    
Difference between a Genuine Argument and a Pseudo-Argument    
Pseudo-Arguments: Committed Believers and Fanatical Skeptics    
A Closer Look at Pseudo-Arguments: The Lack of Shared Assumptions    
Frame of an Argument: A Claim Supported by Reasons    
What Is a Reason?    
Expressing Reasons in Because Clauses    
Conclusion    
Writing Assignment: An Issue Question and Working Thesis Statements    

4    The Logical Structure of Arguments    
An Overview of Logos: What Do We Mean by the “Logical Structure” of an
    Argument?    
Formal Logic versus Real-World Logic    
The Role of Assumptions    
The Core of an Argument: The Enthymeme    
The Power of Audience-Based Reasons    
Adopting a Language for Describing Arguments: The Toulmin System    
Using Toulmin’s Schema to Plan and Test Your Argument    
Hypothetical Example: Cheerleaders as Athletes    
Extended Student Example: Girls and Violent Video Games    
CARMEN TIEU (STUDENT), “Why Violent Video Games Are Good for Girls”    
A student argues that playing violent video games helps girls gain insight into male culture.
The Thesis-Governed “Self-Announcing” Structure of Classical Argument    
Conclusion    
A Note on the Informal Fallacies    
Writing Assignment: Plan of an Argument’s Details
    
5    Using Evidence Effectively   
Kinds of Evidence   
The Persuasive Use of Evidence   
Apply the STAR Criteria to Evidence   
Establish a Trustworthy Ethos   
Be Mindful of a Source’s Distance from Original Data   
Rhetorical Understanding of Evidence   
Angle of Vision and the Selection and Framing of Evidence   
Examining Visual Arguments: Angle of Vision   
Rhetorical Strategies for Framing Evidence   
Special Strategies for Framing Statistical Evidence   
Creating a Plan for Gathering Evidence   
Conclusion   
Writing Assignment: A Supporting-Reasons Argument   

6    Moving Your Audience: Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos   
Logos, Ethos, and Pathos as Persuasive Appeals: An Overview   
How to Create an Effective Ethos: The Appeal to Credibility   
How to Create Pathos: The Appeal to Beliefs and Emotions   
Use Concrete Language   
Use Specific Examples and Illustrations   
Use Narratives   
Use Words, Metaphors, and Analogies with Appropriate Connotations   
Kairos: The Timeliness and Fitness of Arguments   
Using Images to Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos   
Examining Visual Arguments: Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and kairos   
How Audience-Based Reasons Appeal to Logos, Ethos, Pathos, and Kairos   
Conclusion   
Writing Assignment: Revising a Draft for Ethos, Pathos, and Audience-Based Reasons   

7    Responding to Objections and Alternative Views   
One-Sided, Multisided, and Dialogic Arguments   
Determining Your Audience’s Resistance to Your Views   
Appealing to a Supportive Audience: One-Sided Argument   
Appealing to a Neutral or Undecided Audience: Classical Argument   
Summarizing Opposing Views   
Refuting Opposing Views   
Strategies for Rebutting Evidence   
Conceding to Opposing Views   
Example of a Student Essay Using Refutation Strategy   
TRUDIE MAKENS (STUDENT), “Bringing Dignity to Workers: Make the Minimum Wage a Living Wage”   
A student writer refutes three arguments against increasing the minimum wage.
Appealing to a Resistant Audience: Dialogic Argument   
Creating a Dialogic Argument with a Delayed Thesis   
ROSS DOUTHAT, “Islam in Two Americas”   
A conservative columnist asks readers to explore aspects of American identity that suggest that Muslims should not build a community center near Ground Zero.
Writing a Delayed-Thesis Argument   
A More Open-Ended Approach: Rogerian Communication   
Rogerian Communication as Growth for the Writer   
Rogerian Communication as Collaborative Negotiation   
Writing Rogerian Communication   
COLLEEN FONTANA (STUDENT), “An Open Letter to Robert Levy in Response to His Article ‘They Never Learn’ ”   
Using the strategies of Rogerian argument, a student writes an open letter about the problem of gun violence on college campuses to an advocate of minimal gun control laws and more guns.
Conclusion   
Writing Assignment: A Classical Argument or a Rogerian Letter   
Readings   
LAUREN SHINOZUKA (STUDENT), “The Dangers of Digital Distractedness” (A Classical Argument)   
Using the classical argument form, a student writer argues that being a skilled digi-tal native also “harms us by promoting an unproductive habit of multitasking, by dehumanizing our relationships, and by encouraging a distorted self-image.”
MONICA ALLEN (STUDENT), “An Open Letter to Christopher Eide in Response to His Article ‘High-Performing Charter Schools Can Close the Opportunity Gap’ ” (RogerianCommunication)   
Using the strategies of Rogerian communication, a student writer skeptical about charter schools initiates dialogue with a charter school advocate on ways to improve education for low-income and minority students.

PART THREE: ANALYZING ARGUMENTS

8. Analyzing Arguments Rhetorically
Thinking Rhetorically about a Text
Questions for Rhetorical Analysis
Conducting a Rhetorical Analysis
KATHRYN JEAN LOPEZ, “Egg Heads”   
Writing for the conservative magazine National Review, Kathryn Jean Lopez argues against the emerging practice of egg donation enabled by new reproductive technology.
Our Own Rhetorical Analysis of “Egg Heads”   
Conclusion   
Writing Assignment: A Rhetorical Analysis   
Generating Ideas for Your Rhetorical Analysis   
Organizing Your Rhetorical Analysis   
Readings   
ELLEN GOODMAN, “Womb for Rent–For a Price”   
Writing ten years after Lopez, liberal columnist Ellen Goodman explores the ethical dilemmas created when first-world couples “outsource” motherhood to third-world women.
ZACHARY STUMPS (STUDENT), “A Rhetorical Analysis of Ellen Goodman’s ‘Womb for Rent–For a Price’ ”   
A student analyzes Ellen Goodman’s rhetorical strategies in “Womb for Rent,” emphasizing her delayed-thesis structure and her use of language with double meanings.

9    Analyzing Visual Arguments   
Understanding Design Elements in Visual Argument   
Use of Type   
Use of Space or Layout   
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Type and Spatial Elements   
Use of Color   
Use of Images and Graphics   
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using All the Design Components   
The Compositional Features of Photographs and Drawings   
An Analysis of a Visual Argument Using Images   
The Genres of Visual Argument   
Posters and Fliers   
Public Affairs Advocacy Advertisements   
Cartoons   
Web Pages   
Constructing Your Own Visual Argument   
Guidelines for Creating Visual Arguments   
Using Information Graphics in Arguments   
How Tables Contain a Variety of Stories   
Using a Graph to Tell a Story   
Incorporating Graphics into Your Argument   
Conclusion   
Writing Assignment: A Visual Argument Rhetorical Analysis, a Visual Argument, or a Microtheme Using Quantitative Data   
   
PART FOUR:    ARGUMENTS IN DEPTH: TYPES OF CLAIMS   
   
10    An Introduction to the Types of Claims   
The Types of Claims and Their Typical Patterns of Development   
Using Claim Types to Focus an Argument and Generate Ideas: An Example   
Writer 1: Ban E-Cigarettes   
Writer 2: Promote E-Cigarettes as a Preferred Alternative to Real Cigarettes   
Writer 3: Place No Restrictions on E-Cigarettes   
Hybrid Arguments: How Claim Types Work Together in Arguments   
Some Examples of Hybrid Arguments   
An Extended Example of a Hybrid Argument   
ALEX HUTCHINSON, “Pounding Pills: Your Daily Multivitamin May Be Doing More Harm Than Good”   
Writing for an outdoor sports magazine targeting health and fitness enthusiasts, a journalist reviews the scientific literature against daily multivitamins and other supplements.
 
11    Definition and Resemblance Arguments   
What Is at Stake in a Categorical Argument?   
Consequences Resulting from Categorical Claims   
The Rule of Justice: Things in the Same Category Should Be Treated the Same Way
Types of Categorical Arguments   
Simple Categorical Arguments   
Definition Arguments   
Resemblance Argument Using Analogy   
Resemblance Arguments Using Precedent   
Examining Visual Arguments: Claim about Category (Definition)     
The Criteria-Match Structure of Definition Arguments   
Overview of Criteria-Match Structure   
Toulmin Framework for a Definition Argument   
Creating Criteria Using Aristotelian Definition   
Creating Criteria Using an Operational Definition   
Conducting the Match Part of a Definition Argument     
Idea-Generating Strategies for Creating Your Own Criteria-Match
    Argument   
Strategy 1: Research How Others Have Defined the Term   
Strategy 2: Create Your Own Extended Definition   
Writing Assignment: A Definition Argument   
Exploring Ideas   
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake   
Organizing a Definition Argument   
Questioning and Critiquing a Definition Argument   
Readings   
ARTHUR KNOPF (STUDENT), “Is Milk a Health Food?”   
A student argues that milk, despite its reputation for promoting calcium-rich bones, may not be a health food.
ALEX MULLEN (STUDENT), “A Pirate But Not a Thief: What Does ‘Stealing’ Mean in a Digital Environment?”   
A student argues that his act of piracy–downloading a film from a file- sharing torrent site–is not stealing because it deprives no one of property or profit.
LOS ANGELES TIMES EDITORIAL BOARD, “College Football–Yes, It’s a Job”   
The Editorial Board of the Los Angeles Times supports a court decision that scholarship football players at Northwestern University are “paid employees” of the university and therefore have the right to unionize.

12    Causal Arguments   
An Overview of Causal Arguments   
Kinds of Causal Arguments   
Toulmin Framework for a Causal Argument   
Two Methods for Arguing That One Event Causes Another   
First Method: Explain the Causal Mechanism Directly   
Second Method: Infer Causal Links Using Inductive Reasoning   
Examining Visual Arguments: A Causal Claim   
Key Terms and Inductive Fallacies in Causal Arguments   
Writing Assignment: A Causal Argument   
Exploring Ideas   
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake   
Organizing a Causal Argument   
Questioning and Critiquing a Causal Argument   
Readings   
JULEE CHRISTIANSON (STUDENT), “Why Lawrence Summers Was Wrong: Culture Rather Than Biology Explains the Underrepresentation of Women in Science and Mathematics” (APA-format research paper)   
A student writer disagrees with Harvard president Lawrence Summers’s claim that genetic factors may account for fewer women than men holding professorships in math and science at prestige universities.
DEBORAH FALLOWS, “Papa, Don’t Text: The Perils of Distracted Parenting”   
Linguist Deborah Fallows argues in The Atlantic that by texting and talking on cell phones instead of interacting with their young children adults are jeopardizing their children’s language learning.
CARLOS MACIAS (STUDENT), “‘The Credit Card Company Made Me Do It!’–The Credit Card Industry’s Role in Causing Student Debt”   
A student writer examines the causes of college students’ credit card debt and puts the blame on the exploitive practices of the credit card industry.

13    Evaluation and Ethical Arguments   
An Overview of Categorical Ethical Evaluation Arguments   
Constructing a Categorical Evaluation Argument   
Criteria-Match Structure of Categorical Evaluations   
Developing Your Criteria   
Making Your Match Argument   
Examining Visual Arguments: An Evaluation Claim   
Constructing an Ethical Evaluation Argument   
Consequences as the Base of Ethics   
Principles as the Base of Ethics   
Example Ethical Arguments Examining Capital Punishment   
Common Problems in Making Evaluation Arguments   
Writing Assignment: An Evaluation or Ethical Argument   
Exploring Ideas   
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake   
Organizing an Evaluation Argument   
Questioning and Critiquing a Categorical Evaluation Argument   
Critiquing an Ethical Argument   
Readings   
LORENA MENDOZA-FLORES (STUDENT), “Silenced and Invisible: Problems of Hispanic Students at Valley High School”   
A physics major critiques her former high school for marginalizing its growing numbers of Hispanic students.
CHRISTOPHER MOORE (STUDENT), “Information Plus Satire: Why The Daily Show and The Colbert Report Are Good Sources of News for Young People”   
A student favorably evaluates The Daily Show and The Colbert Report as news sources by arguing that they keep us up to date on major world events and teach us to read the news rhetorically.
JUDITH DAAR AND EREZ ALONI, “Three Genetic Parents–For One Healthy Baby”   
Lawyers specializing in medical research argue that mitochondrial replacement (which enables a child to inherit DNA from three parents) “might be a way to prevent hundreds of mitochondrial-linked diseases, which affect about one in 5, people.”
SAMUEL AQUILA, “The ‘Therapeutic Cloning’ of Human Embryos”   
A Catholic archbishop finds therapeutic cloning “heinous,” despite its potential health benefits, “because the process is intended to create life, exploit it, and then destroy it.”
14    Proposal Arguments   
The Special Features and Concerns of Proposal Arguments   
Practical Proposals versus Policy Proposals   
Toulmin Framework for a Proposal Argument   
Special Concerns for Proposal Arguments   
Examining Visual Arguments: A Proposal Claim   
Developing a Proposal Argument   
Convincing Your Readers that a Problem Exists   
Showing the Specifics of Your Proposal   
Convincing Your Readers that the Benefits of Your Proposal Outweigh the Costs   
Using Heuristic Strategies to Develop Supporting Reasons for Your Proposal   
The “Claim Types” Strategy   
The “Stock Issues” Strategy   
Proposal Arguments as Advocacy Posters or Advertisements   
Writing Assignment: A Proposal Argument   
Exploring Ideas   
Identifying Your Audience and Determining What’s at Stake   
Organizing a Proposal Argument   
Designing a One-Page Advocacy Poster or Advertisement   
Designing PowerPoint Slides or Other Visual Aids for a Speech   
Questioning and Critiquing a Proposal Argument   
Readings   
MEGAN JOHNSON (STUDENT), “A Proposal to Allow Off-Campus Purchases with a University
Meal Card”   
A student writes a practical proposal urging her university’s administration to allow off-campus use of meal cards as a way of increasing gender equity and achieving other benefits.
IVAN SNOOK (STUDENT), “Flirting with Disaster: An Argument Against Integrating Women into the Combat Arms” (MLA-format research paper)   
A student writer and Marine veteran returned from combat duty in Iraq argues that women should not serve in combat units because the inevitable sexual friction undermines morale and endangers soldiers’ lives.
SAVE-BEES.ORG, “SAVE THE BEES ADVOCACY AD”   
An organization devoted to saving bees calls for support for a moratorium on the use of certain chemical pesticides that are deadly to bees.
SANDY WAINSCOTT (STUDENT), “Why McDonald’s Should Sell Meat and Veggie Pies: A Proposal to End Subsidies for Cheap Meat” (speech with PowerPoint slides)   
A student proposes the end of subsidies for cheap meat for the benefit of both people’s health and the environment.
MARCEL DICKE AND ARNOLD VAN HUIS, “The Six-Legged Meat of the Future”   
Two Dutch entomologists argue that insects are a nutritious and tasty form of protein and less environmentally harmful than cattle, pigs, or chickens.

PART FIVE: THE RESEARCHED ARGUMENT    

15    Finding and Evaluating Sources   
Formulating a Research Question Instead of a “Topic”   
Thinking Rhetorically about Kinds of Sources   
Identifying Kinds of Sources Relevant to Your Question   
Approaching Sources Rhetorically   
Finding Sources   
Conducting Interviews   
Gathering Source Data from Surveys or Questionnaires   
Finding Books and Reference Sources   
Using Licensed Databases to Find Articles in Scholarly Journals, Magazines, and News Sources   
Finding Cyberspace Sources: Searching the World Wide Web   
Selecting and Evaluating Your Sources   
Reading with Rhetorical Awareness   
Evaluating Sources   
Taking Purposeful Notes   
Conclusion   

16    Incorporating Sources into Your Own Argument   
Using Sources for Your Own Purposes   
Writer 1: A Causal Argument Showing Alternative Approaches to Reducing Risk of Alcoholism   
Writer 2: A Proposal Argument Advocating Vegetarianism   
Writer 3: An Evaluation Argument Looking Skeptically at Vegetarianism   
Using Summary, Paraphrase, and Quotation   
Summarizing   
Paraphrasing   
Quoting   
Punctuating Quotations Correctly   
Quoting a Complete Sentence   
Quoting Words and Phrases   
Modifying a Quotation   
Omitting Something from a Quoted Passage   
Quoting Something That Contains a Quotation   
Using a Block Quotation for a Long Passage   
Creating Rhetorically Effective Attributive Tags   
Attributive Tags versus Parenthetical Citations   
Creating Attributive Tags to Shape Reader Response   
Avoiding Plagiarism   
Why Some Kinds of Plagiarism May Occur Unwittingly   
Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism   
Conclusion    374
 
17    Citing and Documenting Sources   
The Correspondence between In-Text Citations and the End-of-Paper List of Cited Works   
MLA Style   
In-Text Citations in MLA Style   
Works Cited List in MLA Style   
Works Cited Citation Models   
MLA-Style Research Paper   
APA Style   
In-Text Citations in APA Style   
References List in APA Style   
References Citation Models   
APA-Style Research Paper   
Conclusion   
Appendix    Informal Fallacies   
The Problem of Conclusiveness in an Argument   
An Overview of Informal Fallacies   
Fallacies of Pathos   
Fallacies of Ethos   
Fallacies of Logos