Writing By Choice

Paperback | January 3, 2006

byEric Henderson, Chris Higgins

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Writing by Choice takes a fresh and holistic approach to developing writing skills while engaging students. Exploring topics through open-ended questions rather than prescriptive instructions, Eric Henderson equips students with the knowledge to make empowering decisions in their writingduring their academic career and beyond.

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Writing by Choice takes a fresh and holistic approach to developing writing skills while engaging students. Exploring topics through open-ended questions rather than prescriptive instructions, Eric Henderson equips students with the knowledge to make empowering decisions in their writingduring their academic career and beyond.

Eric Henderson is an English Instructor at the University of Victoria.

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:456 pages, 10 × 8 × 1 inPublished:January 3, 2006Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195420772

ISBN - 13:9780195420777

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Table of Contents

PrefaceAcknowledgementsPart One: Developing "3-D" Skills: Thinking, Reading and Writing1. A Choice-Based Approach2. Thinking and Writing: The Composing Process2.1 The Traditional Linear Model2.2 Process-Oriented Models: Discovery Drafts2.3 Process-Reflective Writing3. Thinking and Writing + Reading3.1 Diffuse versus Focused Reading3.2 Responding Critically and Analytically through Questions3.2.1 Before Reading3.2.2 First Reading3.2.3 Second Reading4. The Writing Situation4.1 Writing Purpose4.2 "A" is for Audience4.2.1 Knowledge and Interest4.2.2 Writer-Reader Relationship4.2.3 Audience Orientation5. Stages in Essay-Writing5.1 Pre-writing5.1.1 Questions and Brainstorming5.1.2 Freewriting and Clustering5.2 Research5.3 Organization5.3.1 Scratch (or Sketch) Outline5.3.2 Formal Outline5.3.3 Graphic Outline5.4 Composing: First Draft5.5 Revising: Final Draft5.5.1 Overview5.5.2 Clarifying Meaning5.5.3 Underscoring Ideas5.5.4 Solidifying Structure5.5.5 Fine-Tuning6. Kinds of Essays6.1 Expository versus Argumentative Essays6.2 Narration6.3 Description6.4 A Special Case: The Personal Essay6.4.1 Sample Student Essays6.5 The In-Class or Examination Essay6.5.1 Recall6.5.2 Organization and Time Management6.5.3 Discernment and Adaptability6.5.4 Sample Student In-Class EssayPart Two: Essay and Paragraph Basics1. Introductions1.1 Functions of Introduction1.1.1 Reader Interest: Logical, Dramatic, Emotional1.1.2 Other Features1.2 Introduction Length1.2.1 Starting at the Very Beginning2. Thesis Statements2.1 Kinds of Thesis Statements2.1.1 Simple2.1.2 Expanded2.1.3 Indirect2.2 Effective Thesis Statements3. Outlines3.1 The Value of Outlines3.2 Organizing an Outline3.3 General Guidelines3.4 Developing an Outline with Thesis Statement4. Paragraph Essentials4.1 Essays and Paragraphs: Topic Sentences and Wraps4.2 Unity4.3 Coherence4.3.1 Organizational Patterns4.3.2 Logical Sentence Order4.3.3 Repetition and Synonyms4.3.4 Parallel Structures4.3.5 Transitions4.4 Development5. Conclusions5.1 Functions of a Conclusion5.2 Two Kinds of ConclusionsPart Three: Essay and Paragraph Development1. Developing Your Essay through Substantial Paragraphs1.1 Rhetorical Patterns1.1.1 Definition--What Is It?1.1.2 Chronology--When Did It Occur?1.1.3 Description--What Does It Look Like?1.1.4 Narration--How Can It Be Told?1.1.5 Process--How Does It Work?1.1.6 Personal--Why Should It Affect Me?/How Does or Did It Affect Me?1.1.7 Classification/Division--What Kinds Are There?1.1.8 Cause-Effect--What is The Cause?1.1.9 Question-Answer--What Is The Answer?1.1.10 Example/Illustration--How Can It Be Shown?1.1.11 Problem-Solution--How Can It Be (Re)Solved?1.1.12 Cost-Benefit--What Are The Advantages and Disadvantages?1.1.13 Analogy--How Is It Like and/or Unlike Something Else?1.1.14 Compare and Contrast--How Is It Like and/or Unlike Something Else?1.2 Primary and Secondary Methods2. Essays Using a Primary Method2.1 Definition Essays2.1.1 Sample Essay2.2 Compare and Contrast Essays2.2.1 Block and Point-by-Point Methods2.2.2 Sample Compare and Contrast Essay2.2.3 Excerpt from a Compare and Contrast Essay3. The Design of the Essay: A Two-Part Model3.1 Kinds of Claims: Fact, Value, Policy, and Interpretation3.1.1 Claims of Fact3.1.2 Claims of Value3.1.3 Claims of Policy3.1.4 Claims of Interpretation3.2 Support: Evidence and Credibility3.2.1 Organization of Evidence3.2.2 Kinds of Evidence3.2.3 CredibilityPart Four: The Argumentative Essay1. Rhetoric, Argument, and Persuasion1.1 Staking Your Claim1.2 Arguable Claims1.3 Specific, Interesting, and Manageable Claims1.3.1 Specific Claim1.3.2 Interesting1.3.3 Manageable2. Working Your Claim: Kinds of Evidence2.1 Facts, Statistics2.2 Authorities, Experts2.3 Examples, Illustrations, Case Studies, Precedents2.4 Hypotheses, Analogies, Description, Personal Experience3. Working Your Claim: The Rational Basis of Argument3.1 Inductive Reasoning3.2 Deductive Reasoning4. Refuting the Opposing View4.1 Conditions for Rebuttal4.1.1 Topic4.1.2 Audience4.1.3 Purpose4.2 Two Strategies for Refutation4.2.1Strategy A: Acknowledgement4.2.2 Strategy B: Point-by-Point Refutation5. "Please Sign Our Petition": A Case Study6. Categories of Faulty Reasoning6.1 Logical, Emotional, and Ethical Fallacies6.2 Fallacies and Slanted Language7. Organizing an Outline for Argument8. Rhetorical Function of Parts9. Sample Outline for an Argumentative Essay10. Sample Essays10.1 Sample Student Argumentative Essay #1 (APA Style)10.2 Sample Student Argumentative Essay #2 Annotated (APA Style)10.3 Sample Student Argumentative Essay #3 (MLA Style)10.4 Reading #1 (APA Style): "Cloning and Identity"Part Five: The Expository Essay1. The "Three-Part" Essay: Exposition, Research, Synthesis1.1 Research--Finding and Exploring1.2 Synthesis I--Assimilation1.3 Organization--Arranging1.4 Synthesis II--Integration1.5 Documenting: Following Procedures2. What is Research?3. Who are these experts...and where can you find them?4. A Note about the Internet5. Research Proposals5.1 Purpose5.2 Format5.3 Sample Research Proposals6. Researching Your Topic6.1 Exploring6.2 Research Note-Taking6.3 Organizing Research Notes6.4 Cross-Referencing6.5 Some Useful Research Strategies6.5.1 Assimilating6.5.2 Arranging6.6 Using Contradictory Evidence7. Sources of Research Material7.1 The Range of Sources7.1.1 Primary and Secondary Sources7.2 Start Your Research by Looking at Secondary Sources7.2.1 Books7.2.2 Periodicals7.2.3 Locating Journal Articles7.3 Internet Searches7.3.1 Some Popular Databases7.4 Some Notes on Library Research7.5 Alternative Information Sources7.5.0 Interviewing8. Summarizing Your Sources8.1 Summary8.2 Precis8.3 Abstract8.4 Annotated Bibliographies8.5 Paraphrase9. Outlines for Research Essays10. Integrating Secondary Sources10.1 Plagiarism10.2 Summary, Paraphrase, Direct Citation, Mixed Citation10.2.1 Summarize10.2.2 Paraphrase10.2.3 Direct Quotation10.2.4 Mixed Citation10.3 Signal Phrases, Ellipses, and Brackets10.3.1 Signal Phrases10.3.2 Ellipses10.3.3 Brackets11. Documentation: Citations and References11.1 Choosing Your Citation Style11.2 Necessary versus Unnecessary Citations11.3 The Major Documentation Styles11.4 APA Citation Style11.4.1 APA In-Text Citations11.4.2 APA In-Text Citations by Format11.4.3 APA In-Text Citations: Internet Sources11.4.3 APA In-Text Citations: Non-Textual Sources11.4.5 APA Citations in the References Section11.5 MLA Citation Style11.5.1 MLA In-Text Citation11.5.2 MLA In-Text Citations by Format11.5.3 MLA In-Text Citations: Internet Sources11.5.4 MLA In-Text Citations: Non-Textual Sources11.5.5 MLA Citations in the Works Cited Section11.5.6 MLA Internet Citations11.5.7 MLA Citations for Non-Textual Sources11.5.8 MLA Footnotes11.6 Chicago Citation Style (Note)11.6.1 Chicago Style In-Text Citation11.6.2 Chicago Style Footnote/Endnote Citations by Format11.6.3 Chicago Style Bibliography12. The Formal Precis12.1 Main Features of the Precis12.2 Rhetorical Stance12.3 Signal Phrases13. A Method for Summarizing14. Sample Precis15. Sample Student Essays15.1 Sample Student Expository Essay #1 (APA Style)15.2 Sample Student Expository Essay #2 (MLA Style)15.3 Sample Excerpt from Student Essay (Chicago Style)16. Reading #2 (APA Style): "Marketing Movies on the Internet"Part Six: The Literary Essay1. Common Ground2. Literature as a Unique Encounter3. Kinds of Literary Essays3.1 Response3.2 Evaluation3.3 Literary or Critical Analysis4. Text-Centred and Context-Centred Approaches5. Evaluating Student Essays6. On the Road to the Rough Draft6.1 Method for Developing an Outline or Draft7. When You Write About Literature8. Theory into Practice: A Sample Poetry Analysis9. The Literary Genres: Poetry, the Short Story, the Novel, and Drama10. How to Approach a Poem10.1 Intuitive Approach10.2 Text-Centred Approach (the inside-out approach)10.3 Context-Centred Approach (the outside-in approach)10.4 Sample Student Literary Analysis11. Fiction Forms12. The Short Story12.1 The Single Effect13. The Novel Tradition14. How to Approach Fiction14.1 Plot14.2 Character14.3 Setting14.4 Narrative Point of View14.5 Orientation to Reality15. How to Approach Drama15.1 Comedy15.2 Tragedy16. The Literary Research Essay16.1 Primary and Secondary Sources16.1.1 How to Use Secondary Sources16.1.2 Reliability of Sources16.1.3 Currency16.2 Revising the Literary Essay16.3 Sample Student Literary Research Essay (MLA Style)17. Reading #3 (MLA Style): "The Urban Working Girl..."18. A Brief Glossary of Literary TermsPart Seven: Sentence Essentials1. Grammatical Groundwork1.1 Grammar and Usage1.2 A Choice-Based Grammar1.2.1 The Grammar of Reading and Writing2. Introducing...the Parts of Speech2.1 The Parts of Speech at Work2.2 Substantives: Nouns and Pronouns2.2.1 Functions of Nouns and Pronouns (Substantives)2.2.2 Kinds of Pronouns2.3 Verbs2.4 Modifiers: Adjectives and Adverbs2.5 Joiners: Prepositions and Conjunctions3. Introducing...the Sentence3.1 What Is a Sentence?3.2 The "Invisible Subject" Sentence3.3 Four Errors of Incompletion4. Introducing...Phrases and Clauses4.1 Phrases4.1.1 Prepositional Phrases4.1.2 Noun and Verb Phrases4.2 Clauses4.2.1 Using Conjunctions to Join Clauses4.3 Errors of Combining4.3.1 The Run-On Sentence4.3.2 The Comma Splice5. Punctuation5.1 Commas5.1.1 Use Commas to Separate Items in a Series5.1.2Use Commas to Separate Independent Clauses5.1.3 Use Two Commas to Separate Parenthetical Information5.1.4 Miscellaneous and "Comma Sense" Uses5.2 Other Forms of Punctuation5.3 Semicolons5.3.1 Semicolon with Independent Clauses5.3.2 Serial Semicolon5.4 Colons5.4.1 Formal Uses5.5 Dashes and Parentheses5.6 Punctuation Prohibitions6. Apostrophes7. Agreement7.1 Subject-Verb Agreement7.1.1 Verbal Disputes7.1.2 Finding the Subject7.1.3 Mistaking the Subject7.1.4 Rules for Subject-Verb Agreement8. Pronouns at Work8.1 Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement8.2 Problematic Pronouns: Inclusive Language8.3 Pronoun Reference8.3.1 No Reference (missing antecedent)8.3.2 Remote Reference8.3.3 Ambiguous (Squinting) Reference8.3.4 Broad Reference (Vague Reference)8.4 Pronoun Forms (Case)8.4.1 Personal Pronoun Forms: Case8.4.2 Possessive Pronouns8.4.3 Gerunds and Participles8.4.4 Relative Pronouns8.4.5 Interrogative Pronouns8.5 Pronoun Consistency9. Sentence Construction Errors9.1 Misplaced Modifiers9.1.1 Adjectival Modifiers9.1.2 Adverbial Modifiers9.1.3 Fixing Misplaced Modifiers9.1.4 One-Word Modifiers9.1.5 Dangling Modifiers9.2 The Parallelism Principle9.2.1 Identifying and Fixing Parallelism Problems9.2.2 A List or Series9.2.3 Compounds9.2.4 Correlative Conjunctions9.2.5 Comparisons10. Summary ExercisesPart Eight: Achieving Clarity and Depth for "3-D" Writing1. Effective Style: Clarity1.1 Cutting for Conciseness1.1.1 Doubling Up: The Noah's Ark Syndrome1.1.2 Phony Phrases1.1.3 The Small but Not-So-Beautiful1.1.4 Those Un-Intensives1.2 Writing Directly1.2.1 Passive Constructions: The Lazy Subject1.2.2 Black Hole Constructions1.2.3 Numbing Nouns1.2.4 Euphemisms1.3 Working towards Precision: Wise Word Choices1.3.1 Precision and Logic1.4 Working towards Specificity1.4.1 Verbs with Vitality1.4.2 Prepackaged Goods: Cliches2. Providing Depth: Variety and Emphasis2.1 Sentence Variety2.1.1 Length2.1.2 Structural Variety2.2 Creating Emphasis3. Proofreading: Perfection is Possible3.1 Proofreading Methods3.2 Guidelines for Proofreading3.3 Common Errors4. Essay Presentation5. Common Words That Confuse: Guide and ExerciseAppendicesA. Tense Encounters with Verbs: A SummaryB. The Journalistic EssaySome Features of Journalistic WritingC. A Special Case: On-line Learning and WritingA Sample of On-line DiscussionD. Peer Edit FormsFormal OutlineArgumentative Essay First DraftExpository Essay First DraftLiterary Essay First DraftIndex