Writing Research Papers (Spiral) by James D. LesterWriting Research Papers (Spiral) by James D. Lester

Writing Research Papers (Spiral)

byJames D. Lester, Jim D. Lester

Spiral Bound | December 28, 2008

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The definitive research paper guide for your courses , Writing Research Papers combines a traditional and practical approach to the research process with the latest information on electronic research and presentation. This market-leading text provides you with step-by-step guidance through the research writing process, from selecting and narrowing a topic to formatting the finished document. It includes an extremely thorough and accurate coverage of citation styles for a wide variety of disciplines. 

 To help you keep on top of your work Writing Research Papers backs up its instruction with the most complete array of samples of any writing guide of this nature.

Title:Writing Research Papers (Spiral)Format:Spiral BoundDimensions:416 pages, 8.9 × 6.7 × 0.8 inPublished:December 28, 2008Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0205651917

ISBN - 13:9780205651917

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Table of Contents

To the Instructor

To the Student


CHAPTER 1: Writing from Research

1a Why Do Research?

1b Learning the Conventions of Academic Writing

1c Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism

1d Understanding a Research Assignment

    Understanding the Terminology

1e Establishing a Schedule


CHAPTER 2: Finding a Topic

2a Relating Your Personal Ideas to a Scholarly Problem

    Connecting Personal Experience to Scholarly Topics

    Speculating about Your Subject to Discover Ideas and to Focus on the Issues

2b Talking with Others to Find and Refine the Topic

    Personal Interviews

    Online Discussion Groups

2c Using Online Searches to Refine Your Topic

    Using an Online Subject Directory

    Using an Internet Keyword Search

2d Using the Library’s Electronic Databases to Find and Narrow a Topic

2e Using the Library’s Electronic Book Catalog to Find a Topic

2f Developing a Thesis Statement, Enthymeme, or Hypothesis

2g Drafting a Research Proposal

    The Short Proposal

    The Long Proposal

  Your Research Project


CHAPTER 3: Organizing Ideas and Setting Goals

3a Using a Basic Order to Chart the Course of Your Work

3b Using Your Research Proposal to Direct Your Notetaking

3c Listing Key terms and Phrases to Set Directions for Notetaking

3d Writing a Rough Outline

3e Using Questions to Identify Issues

3f Setting Goals by Using Organizational Patterns

3g Using Approaches across the Curriculum to Chart Your Ideas

3h Using Your Thesis to Chart the Direction of Your Research

    Arrangement by issues

    Arrangement by Cause/Effect

    Arrangement by Interpretation and Evaluation

    Arrangement by Comparison

  Your Research Project


CHAPTER 4: Gathering Sources Online

4a Beginning an Online Search

4b Reading an Online Address

4c Using a Search Engine

    Subject Directory Search Engines

    Robot-Driven Search Engines

    Metasearch Engines

    Specialized Search Engines

    Educational Search Engines

    Educational Search Engines Maintained by Libraries

4d Searching for Articles in Journals and Magazines

    Online Journals

    Online Magazines

4e Searching for Articles in Newspapers and Media Sources

4f Searching for Photographs and Other Visual Sources

4g Accessing E-books

4h Using Listserv, Usenet, and Chat Groups

    E-mail News Groups

    Real-Time Chatting

4i Examining Library Holdings via Online Access

4j Finding an Internet Bibliography

4k Conducting Archival Research on the Internet

    Go to the Library

    Go to an Edited Search Engine

    Go to a Metasearch Engine

    Use Search Engine Directories

    Go to a Listserv or Usenet Group

    Go to Newspaper Archives

   Your Research Project


CHAPTER 5 Gathering Sources in the Library

5a Launching the Search

5b Developing a Working Bibliography

5c Finding Books on Your Topic

    Using Your Library’s Electronic Book Catalog

    Using the Library’s Printed Bibliographies

5d Finding Articles in Magazines and Journals

    Searching the General Indexes to Periodicals

    Finding Indexes by Topic in Appendix B

    Using the H. W. Wilson Indexes

    Searching for an Index to Abstracts

    Searching for Abstracts of Dissertations

5e Searching for a Biography

5f Searching for Articles in the Newspaper Indexes

5g Searching the Indexes to Pamphlet Files

5h Searching for Government Documents

5i Searching for Essays within Books

5j Using the Microforms

    Your Research Project


CHAPTER 6 Conducting Field Research

6a Investigating Local Sources

    Interviewing Knowledgeable People

    Writing Letters and Corresponding by E-mail

    Reading Personal Papers

    Attending Lectures and Public Addresses

6b Investigating Government Documents

6c Examining Audiovisual Materials, Television, and Radio

6d Conducting a Survey with a Questionnaire

6e Conducting Experiments, Tests, and Observation

     Your Research Project


CHAPTER 7 Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism

7a Using Sources to Enhance Your Credibility

7b Placing Your Work in Its Proper Context

7c Understanding Copyright

7d Avoiding Plagiarism

    Common Knowledge

    Correctly Borrowing from a Source

7e Sharing Credit in Collaborative Projects

7f Honoring and Crediting Sources in Online Classrooms

7g Seeking Permission to Publish Material on Your Web Site

     Your Research Project


CHAPTER 8: Reading and Evaluating Sources

8a Finding Reliable Sources

8b Selecting a Mix of Primary and Secondary Sources

8c Evaluating Sources

    Evaluating the Key Parts of an Article

    Evaluating the Key Parts of a Book

    Evaluating the Key Parts of an Internet Article

8d Outlining a Source

8e Summarizing a Source

8f Preparing an Annotated Bibliography

8g Preparing a Review of the Literature on Topic

     Your Research Project


CHAPTER 9: Writing Effective Notes and Creating Outlines

    Gathering Printouts, Photocopies, Scanned Images, and

    Downloaded Data

    Writing Notes of High Quality

9a Creating Effective Notes

    Honoring the Conventions of Research Style

    Using a Computer for Notetaking

9b Writing Personal Notes

9c Writing Direct Quotation Notes

    Quoting Primary Sources

    Quoting Secondary Sources

9d Writing Paraphrased Notes

9e Writing Summary Notes

9f Writing Précis Notes

9g Writing Notes from Field Research

9h Creating Outlines Using Academic Models

    A General All-Purpose Model

    Model for Advancing Your Ideas and Theories

    Model for the Analysis of Creative Works

    Model for Argument and Persuasion Papers

    Model for Analysis of History

    Model for a Comparative Study

9i Writing a Formal Outline

    Using Standard Outline Symbols

    Writing a Formal Topic Outline

    Writing a Formal Sentence Outline

  Your Research Project


CHAPTER 10: Drafting the Paper in an Academic Style

10a Focusing Your Argument

    Maintaining a Focus on Objective Facts and Subjective Ideas

10b Refining the Thesis Statement

    Using Questions to Focus the Thesis

    Adjust or Change Your Thesis during Research If Necessary

10c Writing an Academic Title

10d Drafting the Paper from Your Research Journal, Notes, and Computer Files

    Writing from Your Notes

    Writing with Unity and Coherence

    Writing in the Proper Tense

    Using the Language of the Discipline

    Using Source Material to Enhance Your Writing

    Writing in the Third Person

    Writing with the Passive Voice in an Appropriate Manner

10e Using Visuals Effectively in a Research Essay

    File Formats

10f Avoiding Sexist and Biased Language

      Your Research Project


CHAPTER 11: Blending Reference Material into Your Writing by Using MLA Style

11a Blending Reference Citations into Your Text

    Making a General Reference without a Page Number

    Beginning with the Author and Ending with a Page Number

    Putting the Page Number Immediately after the Name

    Putting the Name and Page Number at the End of Borrowed Material

11b Citing a Source When No Author Is Listed

    Citing the Title of a Magazine Article

    Citing the Title of a Report

    Citing the Name of a Publisher or a Corporate Body

11c Citing Nonprint Sources That Have No Page Number

11d Citing Internet Sources

    Identify the Source with Name or Title

    Identify the Nature of the Information and Its Credibility

    Omitting Page and Paragraph Numbers to Internet Citations

11e Citing Indirect Sources

11f Citing Frequent Page References to the Same Work

11g Citing Material from Textbooks and Large Anthologies

11h Adding Extra Information to In-Text Citations

    One of Several Volumes

    Two or More Works by the Same Writer

    Several Authors in One Citation

    Additional Information with the Page Number

11i Punctuating Citations Properly and Consistently

    Commas and Periods

    Semicolons and Colons

    Question Marks and Exclamation Marks

    Single Quotation Marks

11j Indenting Long Quotations

11k Citing Poetry

    Quoting Two Lines of Poetry or Less

    Quoting Three Lines of Poetry or More

    Indenting Turnovers for Long Lines of Poetry

    Retaining Internal Quotations within a Block

    Providing Translations

11l Handling Quotations from a Play

11mAltering Initial Capitals in Some Quoted Matter

11n Omitting Quoted Matter with Ellipsis Points

11o Altering Quotations with Parentheses and Brackets



  Your Research Project


CHAPTER 12: Writing the Introduction, Body, and Conclusion

12a Writing the Introduction of the Paper

    Provide the Thesis Statement

    Provide the Enthymeme

    Provide a Hypothesis

    Relate to the Well Known

    Provide Background Information

    Review the Literature

    Review the History and Background of the Subject

    Take Exception to Critical Views

    Challenge an Assumption

    Provide a Brief Summary

    Define Key Terms

    Supply Data, Statistics, and Special Evidence

12b Writing the Body of the Research Paper

    Organize by Chronology

    Compare or Contrast Issues, Critical Views, and

    Literary Characters

    Develop Cause and Effect

    Define Your Key Terminology

    Explain a Process

    Ask Questions and Provide Answers

    Cite Evidence from the Source Materials

    Use a Variety of Other Methods

12c Writing the Conclusion of the Research Paper

    Restate the Thesis and Reach beyond It

    Close with an Effective Quotation

    Return the Focus of a Literary Study to the Author

    Compare the Past to the Present

    Offer a Directive or Solution

    Discuss Test Results

  Your Research Project


CHAPTER 13: Revising, Proofreading, and Formatting the Rough Draft

13a Conducting a Global Revision

    Revising the Introduction

    Revising the Body

    Revising the Conclusion

    Participating in Peer Review

13b Formatting the Paper to MLA Style

    Title Page or Opening Page



    The Text of the Paper

    Content Endnotes Page


    Works Cited

13c Editing before Typing or Printing

the Final Manuscript

    Using the Computer to Edit Your Text

13d Proofreading on the Screen and on the Printed Manuscript

       Your Research Project

13e Sample Papers in MLA Style

    Short Literary Research Paper

    Sample Research Paper


CHAPTER 14: Works Cited: MLA Style

14a Formatting the Works Cited Page

    Index to Works Cited Models: MLA Style

14b Works Cited Form — Books

14c Works Cited Form — Periodicals

14d Works Cited Form — Newspapers

14e Works Cited Form — Government Documents

14f Works Cited Form — Internet Sources

14g Works Cited Form — Citing Database Sources

14h Works Cited Form — Other Electronic Sources

14i Works Cited Form — Other Sources


CHAPTER 15: Writing in APA Style

15a Writing Theory, Reporting Test Results, or Reviewing Literature

    Theoretical Article

    Report of an Empirical Study

    Review Article

15b Writing in the Proper Tense for an APA Research Paper

15c Using In-Text Citations in APA Style

15d Preparing the List of References

15e Formatting an APA Paper

    Theoretical Article

    Report of Empirical Research

    Review Article

15f Writing the Abstract

15g Sample Paper in APA Style


CHAPTER 16: The Footnote System: CMS Style

16a Inserting a Superscript Numeral in Your Text

    Writing Full or Abbreviated Notes

16b Formatting and Writing the Footnotes

16c Writing Footnotes for Electronic Sources

16d Writing Subsequent Footnote References

16e Writing Endnotes Rather Than Footnotes

16f Writing Content Footnotes or Content Endnotes

16g Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Humanities

16h Using the Footnote System for Papers in the Fine Arts

16i Writing a Bibliography Page for a Paper That Uses Footnotes

16j Sample Research Paper in the CMS Style


CHAPTER 17: CSE Style for the Natural and Applied Sciences

17a Guide by Discipline

17b Writing In-Text Citations Using the CSE Citation-Sequence System

17c Writing a References Page

17d Writing In-Text Citations with Name and Year

17e Using Name-Year with Bibliography Entries

17f Sample Paper Using the CSE Citation-Sequence System


CHAPTER 18: Creating Electronic Research Projects

18a Beginning the Electronic Project

18b Using Word Processing

18c Building Electronic Presentations

18d Research Paper Web Pages and Sites

    Creating a Single Web Page

    Creating a Web Site with Multiple Pages

    Using an Editor to Create Web Pages

    Importing, Entering, and Modifying Text

    Citing Your Sources in a Web Research Paper

18e Planning Electronic Research Papers

    Creating a Plan for Your Research Paper

    Designing Your Electronic Research Paper

18f Using Graphics in Your Electronic Research Paper

    Graphic File Formats

    Creating Your Own Digital Graphics

18g Using Sound and Video in Your Electronic Research Paper

18h Delivering Your Electronic Research Paper to Readers

18i Preparing a Writing Portfolio

18j Presenting Research in Alternative Formats

      Your Research Project


APPENDIX A: Glossary: Rules and Techniques for Preparing the Manuscript in MLA Style

APPENDIX B: Finding Reference Works for Your General Topic