Youth at Risk and Youth Justice: A Canadian Overview

Paperback | February 10, 2016

EditorJohn Winterdyk, Russell Smandych

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Youth at Risk and Youth Justice, second edition, offers an engaging and relevant introduction to juvenile delinquency in Canada. Drawing on the work of experts from across the country to offer a range of perspectives on the patterns, theories, and emerging topics related to youth justice, thebook blends empirical research with critical analysis, while incorporating youth voices throughout. A new chapter on the justice system in action addresses key current challenges and issues faced by professionals working in the youth justice system including: net-widening; racial profiling bypolice; the changing scope of the work of probation officers; the challenges of dealing with young offenders with mental disorders; and the increasing and somewhat controversial use of risk assessment and management tools in youth courts and corrections. By combining a solid foundation on the fundamentals of the field with lively analysis of the discipline's central themes, Youth at Risk and Youth Justice is an essential resource for Canadian students trying to understand the state of youth crime, delinquency, and victimization today.

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From the Publisher

Youth at Risk and Youth Justice, second edition, offers an engaging and relevant introduction to juvenile delinquency in Canada. Drawing on the work of experts from across the country to offer a range of perspectives on the patterns, theories, and emerging topics related to youth justice, thebook blends empirical research with critical...

John Winterdyk is professor at Mount Royal University in the Department of Justice Studies, as well as an adjunct professor at St Thomas University, the University of Regina, and the Polytechnic of Namibia in Windhoek. He has published extensively in the areas of youth justice, human trafficking, international criminal justice and crim...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:480 pages, 10 × 8 × 0.58 inPublished:February 10, 2016Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199018219

ISBN - 13:9780199018215

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

Contributor BiosPrefaceOrganization of the BookAcknowledgementsAbout the EditorsContributorsPart I History, Trends, and LegislationIntroduction1. Russell Smandych: From "Misguided Children" to "Criminal Youth": Exploring Historical and Contemporary Trends in Canadian Youth JusticeOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionThe Development of Modern Juvenile Justice SystemsContemporary Trends in Youth Justice Law and Practice in CanadaSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferences2. John A. Winterdyk: Measuring Youth Crime in Canada: An Elusive ChallengeOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionDefining Youth CrimeMeasuring Delinquency: A Historical OverviewCharacteristics of Today's Young Offenders - The Official PictureMeasures of Youth Crime: The Unofficial PictureSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsEndnotesReferences3. Ross Green: Understanding the Youth Criminal Justice ActOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionHistorical Context Leading to the Passage of the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA)Policy Objectives Underlying the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA)Rights and Obligations of Young People and Parents under the (YCJA)Sentencing under the (YCJA)Multidisciplinary Approaches to Youth Justice and Crime PreventionConferencing under the (YCJA)Mental Health Issues as a Consideration in Youth CourtThe Public's Right to Know vs. Young People's Right to PrivacySome Effects of the YCJA on At Risk and Chargeable YouthSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsEndnotesReferencesCases Cited4. Adrienne M.F. Peters and Raymond R. Corrado: The Youth Justice System in ActionOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionPoliceCourtCrown CounselDefence LawyersParents/GuardiansSentencingYouth Corrections: Treatment Regimes in Open and Closed Custody FacilitiesRestorative JusticeChallenges in Dealing with Youth Mental Health Issues in Youth Courts and CorrectionsThe Use of Risk Assessment Tools in Youth Courts and CorrectionsIssues Related to Youth RecordsSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferencesStatutes CitedPart II Understanding Contemporary Youth Crime and Justice: Theories and PerspectivesIntroduction5. Susan A. Reid and Sarah Gilliss: Key Challenges in Hearing the Voice of Youth in the Youth Justice SystemOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionThe Legal Regulation of Childhood and AdolescenceThe Codification of a Separate System of Youth Justice in CanadaChallenges Faced by Youth with Highly Complex NeedsDeveloping Youth Policy with Youth VoiceSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferences6. Chris McCormick: Youth Deviance and the Media: Mapping Knowledge and the Limits to CertaintyOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionThe Official Version: Statistics on Youth CrimeThe Unofficial Version: Alternative Methods of Measuring Youth CrimeYouth Crime in the MediaAn Example of the Media Analysis of Newspaper Articles on Youth CrimesSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferences7. Lorinda Stoneman and Sibylle Artz: Canadian Girls and Crime in the Twenty-First CenturyOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionPatterns of Crime and Trends in Youth JusticeThe Female Young OffenderCanadian Judicial Responses to Female Youth CrimeTheories of Female Crime and DelinquencyPromising Directions: Towards Gender-Specific Interventions and Social JusticeSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsEndnoteReferences8. Stephen W. Baron: New Theoretical Perspectives on Youth CrimeOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionThe General Theory of Crime: Self-ControlGeneral Strain Theory (GST)Age-Graded Theory of Social ControlControl Balance TheoryDifferential Coercion TheorySituational Action TheorySummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferences9. Bryan Hogeveen and Joanne C. Minaker: Critical Criminology and Youth Justice in the Risk Society: Issues of Power and JusticeOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionWhat Does It Mean to Be Critical? Why Is It Important?Marginalization and Aboriginal Youth CrimeJacques Derrida (1930-2004) and JusticeMichel Foucault (1926-1984) and PowerRisk and the Risk SocietyCultural CriminologySummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferencesPart III At-Risk and Criminalized Youth Crime in Canada: Selected Types and ProblemsIntroduction10. Jordan Diplock, Darryl Plecas, and Ronda Trumper: Issues of Substance Abuse and Related Crime in AdolescenceOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionSubstance Abuse among Canadian YouthInherent Challenges of Measuring Adolescent Drug Use in Street-Involved-YouthReasons Youth Use Alcohol and Other Drugs- Potential Negative Effects of Adolescent Substance AbuseAdolescent Substance Abuse and the Link to Criminal BehaviourYouth Involvement in Drug CrimesAdolescent Substance Abuse PreventionSubstance Abuse Treatment for Young OffendersTreatment Best Practices with Young OffendersSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferences11. Hirsch Greenberg, Jana Grekul, and Rhonda Nelson: Aboriginal Youth Crime in CanadaOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionUnderstanding the Complexities of Aboriginal Youth CrimeUnderstanding the Causes/Influences of CrimeInvestigating the Aboriginal Youth Gang PhenomenonAttribution of Responsibility: The Youth Justice SystemHealing: A More Appropriate Alternative to Aboriginal Youth Crime?SummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferences12. Mark Totten: An Overview of Gang-Involved Youth in CanadaOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionOverview of Gang Research in CanadaGang Typology in CanadaStreet Gang Membership, Roles, and CharacteristicsGang Recruitment and ExitLegislation and Official Response to GangsFemale Involvement in GangsA Biopsychosocial Theory of Youth GangsPrevention, Intervention, and Suppression ApproachesSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsEndnotesReferences13. Bruce MacLaurin and Catherine Worthington: Street-Involved Youth in CanadaOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionDefining Street-Involved Youth v. Homeless AdultsTypologies of Street-Involved YouthNumbers of Street-Involved YouthPerspectives on Street-Involved YouthPathways to the Street - The Vulnerable PopulationLife on the StreetsRisks Associated with Street InvolvementInstitutional Experiences of Street-Involved YouthStreet Services and Intervention StrategiesSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferences14. Susan McIntyre and Anne Miller: Under the Radar: The Sexual Exploitation of Young Men in Western CanadaOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionFactors Leading to "Under the Radar: The Sexual Exploitation of Young Men"Key Demographics from StudyThe Work Life/Hustling of Sexually Exploited Young MenExperiences of Youth Who Stay in Sexual Exploitation TradeHelping Young Men Exit the Sexual Exploitation TradeMessages for Service ProvidersSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferencesPart IV Keeping Kids Out of the System: Exploring Progressive Approaches to Youth Crime and JusticeIntroduction15. Louis-Georges Cournoyer, Jacques Dionne, Michele Goyette, and Pierre Hamel: Quebec's Experience in Keeping Youth Out of JailOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionThe Quebec Intervention Model for Young Offenders: The Right Measure at the Right TimeEvolution of Quebec's Legislative FrameworkThe Evolution of InterventionsThe Evolution of Criminological ResearchToday's Services for Young OffendersQuebec's Guidelines for Youth Offenders' RehabilitationSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsEndnotesReferences16. Brenda Morrison and Colleen Pawlychka: Juvenile Justice and Restorative Justice: Reflecting on Developments in British ColumbiaOverviewKey ObjectivesIntroductionReconceptualizing "Crime"Juvenile Justice Legislation: Social Control to "Off Ramps"The Development of Restorative Justice in BC: The Intersection of Three PracticesBritish Columbia's Justice ReformsOff Ramps: The Importance of NGOsJustice Reform: Responding and Engaging with Communities in Criminal JusticeSummaryKey TermsReview QuestionsCritical Thinking QuestionsReferencesStatutes CitedGlossaryIndex