ZigBee Wireless Sensor and Control Network by Ata ElahiZigBee Wireless Sensor and Control Network by Ata Elahi

ZigBee Wireless Sensor and Control Network

byAta Elahi, Adam Gschwender

Paperback | October 29, 2009

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The First Practical Guide to Advanced Wireless Development with ZigBee Technologies


Supported by more than a hundred companies, the new ZigBee standard enables powerful new wireless applications for safety, security, and control, ranging from smart energy to home automation and medical care to advanced remote control. ZigBee Wireless Sensor and Control Network brings together all the knowledge professionals need to start building effective ZigBee solutions.


The only simple, concise guide to ZigBee architecture, concepts, networking, and applications, this book thoroughly explains the entire ZigBee protocol stack and covers issues ranging from routing to security. It also presents detailed, practical coverage of ZigBee features for home automation, smart energy networking, and consumer electronics.


Topics include

•  Fundamental wireless concepts: OSI Model, error detection, the ISM Band, modulation, WLAN, FHSS, DSSS, Wireless MANs, Bluetooth, and more

•  ZigBee essentials: applications, characteristics, device types, topologies, protocol architecture, and expanded ZigBee PRO features

•  Physical layer: includes frequency bands, data rate, channels, data/management services, transmitter power, and receiver sensitivity

•  MAC layer: data/management services, MAC layer information base, access methods, and frames

•  Network layer: data entities, NIB, device configuration, starting network, addressing, discovery, channel scanning, and more

•  Application support sublayer and application layer: includes profiles, cluster format, attributes, device discovery, and binding

•  ZigBee network security: includes encryption, trust center, security modes, and security management primitives

•  Address assignment and routing techniques

•  Alternative technologies: 6lowpan, WirelessHART, and Z-wave


Ata Elahi has been a Professor in the Computer Science Department of Southern Connecticut State University since 1986. His research areas include computer networks, data communication, computer hardware design, and pipeline processors. Elahi’s books include Data, Network, and Internet Communications Technology and Communication Networ...
Title:ZigBee Wireless Sensor and Control NetworkFormat:PaperbackDimensions:288 pages, 9 × 6.9 × 0.8 inPublished:October 29, 2009Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0137134851

ISBN - 13:9780137134854

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Read from the Book

Preface ZigBee is a new personal-area network (PAN) standard developed by the ZigBee Alliance. The ZigBee standard can be used to establish a wireless PAN, specifically a low-rate/power wireless sensor and control network. Wireless sensor and control networking is one the most rapidly growing technologies and has a wide variety of applications, including smart energy; commercial building automation; home automation; personal, home, and hospital care; remote-control applications for consumer electronics; telecom applications; and wireless sensor network applications. This book presents an overview of the ZigBee technology and its applications, allowing the wireless system designer, manager, or student access to this new and growing field of wireless sensor and control networking. For the uninitiated in wireless technology, the book provides a helpful overview of wireless technology, giving the reader the background necessary for understanding ZigBee. It goes into detail about the ZigBee protocol stack, describing ZigBee’s use of IEEE 802.15.4, which defines the Media Access Control (MAC) and physical layers for the low-rate wireless personal-area network (LR-WPAN), and ZigBee’s implementations of the network, security, and application layers. Organization This book is divided into 11 chapters, which commence by introducing you to wireless technology and then proceed up the ZigBee protocol stack. In aggregate, the chapters provide comprehensive coverage of IEEE 802.15.4 and the ZigBee protocol architecture. In addition, three appendixes describe alternative technologies that can also be used to establish a PAN. Chapter 1, “Introduction to Wireless Networks,” covers the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model; error detection; the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band; modulation techniques; wireless local-area networks (WLANs), frequency-hopping spread spectrum (FHSS); direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS); wireless metro-area networks (MANs); and Bluetooth. Chapter 2, “ZigBee Wireless Sensor and Control Network,” presents an overview of ZigBee applications, ZigBee characteristics, ZigBee device types, ZigBee topologies, ZigBee protocol architecture, and characteristics of ZigBee Pro. Chapter 3, “IEEE 802.15.4 Physical Layer,” covers frequency bands, data rate, channels, the physical layer data and management services, transmitter power, receiver sensitivity, received signal strength indication (RSSI), and link-quality indication. Chapter 4, “IEEE 802.15.4 Media Access Control (MAC) Layer,” covers MAC data and management services, the MAC layer information base, access methods, the beacon frame, the MAC data frame and control frame, and the command frame format. Chapter 5, “Network Layer,” covers the network layer data entity; the Network Information Base (NIB); the configuration of a new device; starting a network; addressing, joining, and leaving a network; network discovery; channel scanning; the network-formation process; route discovery; and the network command frame format. Chapter 6, “Application Support Sublayer (APS) ,” covers the application support sublayer data and management entities, the APS Information Base, the APS sublayer frame format, and the APS command frame format. Chapter 7, “Application Layer,” presents the application profile, the attribute, the cluster, the cluster format, general cluster commands, ZigBee cluster libraries, the simple application profile, the ZigBee device profile, the node descriptor, and binding and network management commands. Chapter 8, “Security,” covers elements of network security, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), ZigBee security and the Trust Center, ZigBee Residential, Standard and High-Security modes, ZigBee security management primitives, counter mode encryption (CTR) and cipher block chaining encryption (CBC). Chapter 9, “Address Assignment and Routing,” covers address assignment using distributed schemes, stochastic address assignment, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing protocol, unicast routing discovery, multicast routing discovery, dynamic source routing, ZigBee routing attributes, tree hierarchical routing, ZigBee Pro routing, and routing commands. Chapter 10, “ZigBee Home Automation and Smart Energy Network,” examines the ZigBee home automation cluster, home automation network requirements, devices used for home automation, commissioning, the Smart Energy network, advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), and home-area networks (HANs). Chapter 11, “ZigBee RF4CE,” covers the Radio Frequency for Consumer Electronics (RF4CE) protocol, RF4CE nodes and topology, network layer data and management services, and the pairing process. Appendix A, “6lowpan,” covers IPv6 over low-power wireless personal-area network (6LoWPAN). Appendix B, “Wireless HART,” covers wireless HART. Appendix C, “Z-Wave,” covers Z-Wave technology. Acknowledgments Many people contributed to the development of this book. We want to express our deep appreciation to Spiro Sacre of National Technical System for his in-depth review of the manuscript and his valuable suggestions and comments, which enabled us to improve the quality of this book. We also want to thank the following reviewers who reviewed the manuscript and provided valuable suggestions for its improvement: Ryan J. Maley, vice president of operations at Software Technologies Group; and Ian Marsden, director of Integration Associates, Dr. Farid Farahmand, assistant professor, Sonoma State University. And for their encouragement and support, we also want to thank Dr. Edward Harris, dean of the School of Communication, Information and Library Science; Professor Winnie Yu, chairperson of Computer Science at Southern Connecticut State University; and Reza Khani, vice president of operations, Petra Solar Inc. And a special thanks to the staff of Pearson, especially Bernard Goodwin, Lori Lyons, Keith Cline, and Michelle Housley. © Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Table of Contents

Preface     xiii


CHAPTER 1    Introduction to Wireless Networks     1

Introduction     1

1.1  The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model     3

1.2  IEEE 802 Standard Committee     5

1.3  Wireless Technologies     6

1.4  Antenna     8

1.5  Error-Detection Methods     9

1.6  ISM and U-NII Bands     13

1.7  Modulation     13

1.8  Wireless Local-Area Network (WLAN)     17

1.9  Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)     20

1.10  Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)     20

1.11  Wireless MAN     21

1.12  Bluetooth     25

Summary     28

References     30


CHAPTER 2    ZigBee Wireless Sensor and Control Network     31

Introduction     31

2.1  ZigBee Network Characteristics     33

2.2  ZigBee Device Types     34

2.3  ZigBee Topologies     35

2.4  End Device (Node) Addressing     39

2.5  Depth of a Network, Number of Children, and Network Address Allocation     40

2.6  ZigBee Protocol Architecture     40

2.7  ZigBee and ZigBee PRO Feature Sets     43

Summary     46

References     47


CHAPTER 3    IEEE 802.15.4 Physical Layer     49

Introduction     49

3.1  Frequency Band, Data Rate, and Channel Numbering     50

3.2  Physical Layer Services    52

3.3  Transmitter Power and Receiver Sensitivity    57

3.4  Physical Layer Information Base (PIB)     60

3.5  Physical Layer Transmission    61

Summary    68

References     69


CHAPTER 4    IEEE 802.15.4 Media Access Control (MAC) Layer     71

Introduction    71

4.1  MAC Layer Services    71

4.2  MAC Layer Information Base (MIB)     75

4.3  MAC Management Services     77

4.4  Scanning Channels     83

4.5  Access Method     84

4.6  Data Transfer Model 88

4.7  MAC Frame Format     90

4.8  Association Request    94

4.9  Disassociation Notification Command     96

4.10  Orphan Notification    96

4.11  Beacon Request    97

4.12  Coordinator Realignment Command 97   

Summary    98

References     98


CHAPTER 5    Network Layer    99

Introduction     99

5.1  Network Layer Data Entity (NLDE) Services     100

5.2  Network Information Base (NIB)     102

5.3  Network Layer Management Entity (NLME)     105

5.4  Network Formation     108

5.5  Joining a Network     110

5.6  Network Layer Frame Format     112

5.7  Neighbor Table     114

5.8  Network Command Frame Format     114

Summary     116

References     117


CHAPTER 6    ZigBee Application Support Sublayer (APS)     119

Introduction    119

6.1  Application Support Data Entity (APSDE)     119

6.2  Application Support Sublayer Management Entity (ASME)     122

6.3  Application Support Sublayer Information Base (AIB)     123

6.4  Persistent Data     124

6.5  Application Support Sublayer Frame Format     125

6.6  APS Command Frame Format     127

Summary     128

References     128


CHAPTER 7    Application Layer    129

Introduction    129

7.1  Application Object (Endpoint)     129

7.2  Attribute, Cluster, Cluster Library, and Profile    130

7.3  Cluster     132

7.4  General Cluster Commands    134

7.5  Attribute Reporting     135

7.6  ZigBee Cluster Libraries    137

7.7  ZigBee Device Object (ZDO)     140

7.8  ZigBee Device Profile (ZDP)     140

7.9  Device Discovery    143

7.10  Binding     146

7.11  Network Management Commands     150

7.12  ZigBee Coordinator Startup    151

Summary     151

References    153


CHAPTER 8    ZigBee Security     155

Introduction     155

8.1  Elements of Network Security    155

8.2  Introduction to Cryptography    156

8.3  ZigBee Security     160

8.4  ZigBee Security Modes    161

8.5  Security Management Primitives     164

8.6  Counter (CTR) Mode Encryption     165

8.7  Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode Encryption     166

8.8  Network Layer Security     166

8.9  Application Support SubLayer Security     168

Summary     174

References     175


CHAPTER 9    Address Assignment and Routing     177

Introduction     177

9.1  Address Assignment Using Distributed Scheme     177

9.2  Stochastic Address Assignment    179

9.3  Routing    179

9.4  Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)     182

9.5  ZigBee Routing    183

9.6  ZigBee Routing Commands     187

Summary     191

References    191


CHAPTER 10    ZigBee Home Automation and Smart Energy Network    193

10.1  Home Automation Profile     193

10.2  Smart Energy Network    197

10.3  ZigBee Stack Profile for Smart Energy (SE) Profile     200

10.4  Smart Energy Cluster     203

10.5  Smart Energy Device     203

Summary     204

References     205


CHAPTER 11    ZigBee RF4CE     207

Introduction     207

11.1  RF4CE Nodes and Topology    208

11.2  RF4CE Protocol Architecture     209

11.3  Network Layer Data Services    210

11.4  Network Layer Management Services    211

11.5  Network Layer Information Base (NIB)     212

11.6  Discovery Process    213

11.7  Pairing Process     214

Summary    216

References     217


APPENDIX A   6lowpan     219

Introduction     219

A.1  IPv6 Structure    220

A.2  User Datagram Protocol (UDP)     222

A.3  IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and Physical Layer Frame Format     222

A.4  64-Bit Global Identifier    223

A.5  Adaptation Layer     223

A.6  Fragmented IPv6 Payload    228


APPENDIX B   Wireless HART     229

Introduction    229

B.1  Wireless HART Physical Layer     230

B.2  Wireless HART Data Link Layer     230

B.3  Wireless HART Network Layer    231

B.4  Wireless HART Network Components     231

B.5  Network Formation     232

B.6  Security     233

B.7  Wireless HART Data Transfer Mode     233


APPENDIX C   Z-Wave    235

Introduction    235

C.1  Z-Wave Protocol Architecture     235

C.2  RF Media     236

C.3  MAC Layer     236


APPENDIX D   Abbreviations    237


Bibliography     241

Index     245