Philosophical Problems: An Annotated Anthology, Reprint

Paperback | December 21, 2007

byLaurence Bonjour, Ann Baker

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Edited and assembled by one of philosophy's foremost scholars in collaboration with a distinguished teacher, this introductory anthology offers both classic and contemporary primary source readings and schools students in developing distinctly philosophical habits of mind.


In addition to the fine selection of primary source readings, this anthology offers a unique array of pedagogical features that, together, form a “roadmap” for thinking philosophically.  These features begin with an introductory essay, followed by chapter introductions and marginal annotations that accompany the readings, and conclude with discussion questions and an appendix on writing about philosophy.  

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Edited and assembled by one of philosophy's foremost scholars in collaboration with a distinguished teacher, this introductory anthology offers both classic and contemporary primary source readings and schools students in developing distinctly philosophical habits of mind.   In addition to the fine selection of primary source reading...

Format:PaperbackDimensions:672 pages, 10.8 × 8.4 × 0.9 inPublished:December 21, 2007Publisher:Pearson EducationLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:020563947X

ISBN - 13:9780205639472

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Extra Content

Table of Contents

*Selections new to this edition are indicated with an asterisk


Preface to the 2nd Edition 

For the Student: An Introduction to the Annotations 

Chapter 1    What is Philosophy? 

Ann Baker: Philosophical Thinking 

Plato: Euthyphro 

Plato: Apology 

Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy 


Chapter 2    Knowledge and Skepticism 

Do We Have Knowledge of the External World? 

René Descartes: From Meditations on First Philosophy 

John Locke: From An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 

George Berkeley: From Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous 

Thomas Reid: Direct Realism, from Essays on the Intellectual Powers of Man 

Laurence BonJour: Knowledge of the External World, from Epistemology: Classic Problems and Contemporary Responses 

Sextus Empiricus: From Outlines of Pyrrhonism

Concluding Dialogue on the External World* 

Is Induction Justified? 

David Hume: Skeptical Doubts Concerning the Operations of the Understanding, from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding 

Wesley Salmon: The Problem of Induction, from The Foundations of Scientific Inference

A. C. Ewing: The “A Priori” and the Empirical, from The Fundamental Questions of Philosophy 

Concluding Dialogue on the Problem of Induction* 


Chapter 3    Minds and Bodies 

Are Minds and Mental States Distinct from Bodies and Material States? 

John Foster: A Defense of Dualism 

J. J. C. Smart: Sensations and Brain Processes 

Jerry Fodor: The Mind-Body Problem

Are Intentional Mental States Analogous to the States of a Computer? 

A. M. Turing: Computing Machinery and Intelligence 

John R. Searle: Is the Brain’s Mind a Computer Program? 

Jerry Fodor: Searle on What Only Brains Can Do 

John R. Searle: Author’s Response 

Can Materialism Account for Qualitative Consciousness? 

Thomas Nagel: What Is It Like to Be a Bat? 

Frank Jackson: What Mary Didn’t Know 

Laurence BonJour: What Is It Like to Be a Human (Instead of a Bat)? 

David Lewis: Knowing What It’s Like 

David J. Chalmers: The Puzzle of Conscious Experience 

Concluding Dialogue on the Mind-Body Problem*


Chapter 4    Personal Identity and Free Will

What is Required for Personal Identity?  

John Locke: Personal Identity 

Thomas Reid: Of Mr. Locke’s Account of Personal Identity 

Bernard Williams: The Self and the Future 

Derek Parfit: Personal Identity 

Concluding Dialogue on Personal Identity *

Are Human Actions Genuinely Free? 

Hard Determinism

Robert Blatchford: A Defense of Hard Determinism, from Not Guilty: A Defense of the Bottom Dog 


David Hume: Of Liberty and Necessity 

W. T. Stace: A Compatibalist Account of Free Will, from Religion and the Modern Mind 

Paul Edwards: Hard and Soft Determinism 

Harry Frankfurt: Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person* 


C. A. Campbell: In Defense of Free Will 

Robert Nozick: Choice and Indeterminism, from Philosophical Explanations  

Robert Kane: Free Will and Modern Science, from A Contemporary Introduction to Free Will* 

Back to Hard Determinism?

Galen Strawson: Free Will

Concluding Dialogue on Free Will*


Chapter 5    Morality and Moral Problems 

What Is the Best Theory of Morality: Utilitarianism, Deontological Views, or Virtue Ethics? 

Utilitarianism: Morality Depends on Consequences

Jeremy Bentham: From An Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation  

John Stuart Mill: From Utilitarianism 

J. J. C. Smart: Extreme and Restricted Utilitarianism 

Bernard Williams: A Critique of Utilitarianism 

Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality* 

Deontological Views: Morality Depends on Duties and Rights

Immanuel Kant: From Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals 

Onora O’Neill: The Moral Perplexities of Famine Relief 

David T. Ozar: Rights: What They Are and Where They Come From 

Judith Jarvis Thomson: A Defense of Abortion 

Virtue Ethics: Morality Depends on Character Traits

Aristotle: From The Nichomachean Ethics 

Rosalind Hursthouse: Normative Virtue Ethics 

Rosalind Hursthouse: Virtue Theory and Abortion* 

Challenges to Morality: Relativism and Egoism

James Rachels: The Challenge of Cultural Relativism 

Joel Feinberg: Psychological Egoism 

Plato: Are We Better Off Behaving Morally or Immorally? 

Concluding Dialogue on Morality and Moral Problems* 


Chapter 6    The Legitimacy of Government and The Nature of Justice 

What Is the Justification for Government?

Thomas Hobbes: The Social Contract, from Leviathan 

John Locke: The Social Contract, from Second Treatise of Government  

David Hume: Of the Original Contract 

What Is Social Justice?

Robert Nozick: The Entitlement Theory of Justice, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia 

John Rawls: Justice as Fairness, from A Theory of Justice 

Robert Nozick: A Critique of Rawls, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia 

Thomas M. Scanlon: Nozick on Rights, Liberty, and Property 

Concluding Dialogue on Government and Justice*


Chapter 7    God and Faith 

Does God Exist? 

The Cosmological Argument

St. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways, from Summa Theologica 

Samuel Clarke: The Cosmological Argument, from A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God 

David Hume: Problems with the Cosmological Argument, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion 

The Argument from Design

William Paley: The Argument from Design, from Natural Theology 

Stephen Jay Gould: The Panda’s Thumb 

David Hume: Problems with the Argument from Design, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion 

Antony Flew: Critique of the Global Argument from Design, from God: A Critical Inquiry 

The Ontological Argument

St. Anselm: The Ontological Argument, from Proslogion*

René Descartes: The Ontological Argument 

Immanuel Kant: The Impossibility of an Ontological Proof of the Existence of God 

An Argument Against the Existence of God: The Problem of Evil 

David Hume: The Problem of Evil, from Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion 

J. L. Mackie: Evil and Omnipotence 

John Hick: The Problem of Evil, from Philosophy of Religion 

Must We Have Reasons to Believe in God?

Walter Kaufmann: Pascal’s Wager, from Critique of Religion and Philosophy 

William James: The Will to Believe 

Concluding Dialogue on God and Faith*


Chapter 8    Philosophy and The Good Life 

Epictetus: from the Manual 

Robert Nozick: The Experience Machine 

Thomas Nagel: The Absurd 

Susan Wolf: Happiness and Meaning: Two Aspects of the Good Life 

Concluding Dialogue on the Good Life*