Coming a decade after the first Public Report on Basic Education (PROBE), this report is written from the perspective of those who despite yearning for good quality education find themselves excluded from learning and acquiring decent education. The data is based on the findings of a surveyconducted in 2006, along the lines of an earlier survey conducted by PROBE in 1996 - it 'revisited' the same sample villages covering schools and households, with some modifications. Apart from basic and primary education, this report looks at upper-primary schooling in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, UttarPradesh, and Rajasthan, and in Himachal Pradesh. It highlights major progress in areas such as schooling facilities and enrolment rates. At the same time, it finds that fundamental problems remain, such as low classroom activity, poor quality of education, and discrimination due to socialdisparities in schooling opportunities. It is an indispensible tool for educationists, planners and policymakers, funding agencies, NGOs, and researchers across the social sciences and all those concerned with elementary education in India.