The Canadian Writers Handbook

Paperback | September 16, 2014

byWilliam E. Messenger, Jan de Bruyn, Judy Brown

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For almost 35 years, The Canadian Writer's Handbook has provided invaluable guidance on all aspects of the writing process, from the mechanics of building effective sentences and paragraphs to the intricacies of writing, formatting, and documenting full-length research papers. The sixthedition provides improved explanations for EAL learners; up-to-date coverage of Internet research; a fully revised section on research, writing, and documentation; new examples; and expanded exercises.

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For almost 35 years, The Canadian Writer's Handbook has provided invaluable guidance on all aspects of the writing process, from the mechanics of building effective sentences and paragraphs to the intricacies of writing, formatting, and documenting full-length research papers. The sixthedition provides improved explanations for EAL le...

William E. Messenger (now deceased) and Jan de Bruyn, both emeritus professors of the University of British Columbia, produced the first edition of The Canadian Writer's Handbook (main volume) in 1980. Judy Brown (now deceased) joined the project as an editorial consultant on the third edition; she was a senior instructor and associat...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:696 pages, 9 × 6 × 1.1 inPublished:September 16, 2014Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0195446968

ISBN - 13:9780195446968

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Table of Contents

Part One: Principles of CompositionIntroduction: The Writing Process, Essays, and ParagraphsWriting Essays1. Unity, Coherence, and Emphasis in Essays1a. Unity1b. Coherence1c. Emphasis2. The Process of Planning, Writing, and Revising an Essay2a. Finding a Subject2b. Limiting the Subject2c. Considering Audience and Purpose2d. Choosing Methods of Development2e. Developing a Preliminary Proposal2f. Gathering Evidence2g. Classifying and Organizing the Evidence2h. Formulating a Thesis Statement2i. Creating an Outline2j. Writing the First Draft2k. Integrating and Commenting on Evidence2-l. Revising2m. Preparing the Final Draft2n. Proofreading3. Argument: Writing to Convince or Persuade3a. Subject3b. Audience3c. Evidence3d. Organization3e. Being Reasonable3f. Including the Opposition3g. Using Induction and Deduction3h. Detecting and Avoiding Fallacies4. Writing In-Class Essays and Essay ExaminationsWriting Paragraphs5. Kinds of Paragraphs6. Paragraph Unity7. Paragraph Coherence7a. Coherence Through Organization: Beginning, Middle, and Ending7b. Structural Coherence8. Emphasis in Paragraphs9. Length of Paragraphs9a. Too Many Long Paragraphs9b. Too many Short Paragraphs9c. Variety10. Paragraph Review: A Sample Paragraph with AnalysisPart Two: Understanding SentencesIntroduction: The Convention of LanguageGrammar11. Sentence Patterns and Conventions11a. Subject and Predicate, Noun and Verb11b. Articles and Other Modifiers11c. Sentence Pattern 1: Subject + Verb11d. Sentence Pattern 2A: Subject + Verb + Direct Object11e. Sentence Pattern 2B (Passive Voice): Subject + Passive Voice Verb11f. Sentence Pattern 3: Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object11g. Sentence Pattern 4A: Subject + Linking Verb + Subjective Complement (Predicate Adjective)11h. Sentence Pattern 4B: Subject + Linking Verb + Subjective Complement (Predicate Noun)11i. Sentence Pattern 5A: Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Objective Complement (Adjective)11j. Sentence Pattern 5B: Subject + Verb + Direct Object + Objective Complement (Noun)11k. Sentence Pattern 6 (Expletive): There or It + Linking Verb (+ Complement) + Subject11-l. Other Elements: Structure Words11m. Independent (Main) Clauses11n. Subordinate (Dependent) Clauses11-o. Functions of Subordinate Clauses11p. Phrases11q. Appositives11r. Absolute Phrases11s. Order of Elements in Declarative Sentences11t. Order of Elements in Interrogative Sentences11u. The Structure of Imperative Sentences12. What Is (Or Is Not) a Sentence?12a. Minor Sentences12b. Fragments12c. Major SentencesPart Three: Parts of SpeechIntroduction: The Parts of Speech and How They Work in Sentences13. Nouns13a. Inflection of Nouns13b. Grammatical Function of Nouns14. Pronouns14a. Personal Pronouns14b. Impersonal Pronouns14c. Interrogative Pronouns14d. Relative Pronouns14e. Case14f. Demonstrative Pronouns14g. Indefinite Pronouns14h. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns14i. Reciprocal Pronouns15. Agreement of Pronouns with Their Antecedents15a. Antecedents Joined by and15b. Antecedents Joined by or or nor15c. Indefinite Pronoun as Antecedent15d. Pronouns and Inclusive Language: Avoiding Gender Bias15e. Collective Noun as Antecedent15f. Agreement with Demonstrative Adjectives16. Reference of Pronouns16a. Remote Antecedent16b. Ambiguous Reference16c. Vague Reference16d. Missing Antecedent16e. Indefinite you, they, and it17. Verbs17a. Kinds of Verbs: Transitive, Intransitive, and Linking17b. Inflection of Verbs: Principal Parts17c. Irregular Verbs17d. Inflection for Person and Number17e. Auxiliary Verbs17f. Inflection of do, be, and have17g. Time and the Verb: Inflection for Tense17h. The Functions of the Different Tenses17i. Sequence of Tenses17j. Verb Phrases in Compound Predicates17k. Tenses in Writing about Literature17-l. Mood17m. Using the Subjunctive Mood7n. Using Modal Auxiliaries and Infinitives Instead of Subjunctives17-o. Voice17p. The Passive Voice18. Agreement Between Subject and Verb18a. Words Intervening Between Subject and Verb18b. Compound Subject: Singular Nouns Joined by and18c. Compound Subject: Parts Joined by or or a Correlative18d. Agreement with Indefinite Pronouns18e. Subject Following Verb18f. Agreement with Collective Nouns18g. Nouns That Are Always Singular or Always Plural18h. Plurals: criteria, data, media, etc.18i. Agreement with Relative Pronouns18j. Titles of Works and Words Referred to as Words19. Adjectives19a. Kinds of Adjectives19b. Comparison of Descriptive Adjectives19c. Articles: a, an, and the19d. Placement of Adjectives19e. Order of Adjectives19f. Adjectives Functioning as Nouns20. Adverbs20a. Kinds and Functions of Adverbs20b. Forms of Adverbs20c. Comparison of Adverbs20d. Placement of Adverbs21. Verbals: Infinitives, Participles, and Gerunds21a. Infinitives21b. Tense and Voice of Infinitives21c. Split Infinitives21d. Participles21e. Tense and Voice of Participles21f. Gerunds21g. Tense and Voice of Gerunds21h. Possessives with Gerunds21i. Verbals in Absolute Phrases22. Prepositions22a. Functions of Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases22b. Placement of Prepositions22c. Common Prepositions22d. Two-Part Verbs; Verb Idioms22e. Using Two-Part Verbs: Informality and Formality23. Conjunctions23a. Coordinating Conjunctions23b. Correlative Conjunctions23c. Subordinating Conjunctions24. InterjectionsPart Four: Writing Effective SentencesIntroduction: Examining How Sentences WorkBasic Sentence Elements and Their Modifiers25. Subject, Verb, Object, Complement25a. Subject25b. Finite Verb25c. Direct Object25d. Subjective Complement26. Modifiers26a. Adjectival Modifiers26b. Adverbial Modifiers26c. Overlapping Modifiers26d. Using Modifiers: A Sample ScenarioLength, Variety, and Emphasis27. Sentence Length27a. Short Sentences27b. Long Sentences28. Sentence Variety28a. Variety of Lengths28b. Variety of Kinds28c. Variety of Structures29. Emphasis in Sentences29a. Endings and Beginnings29b. Loose Sentences and Periodic Sentences29c. The Importance of the Final Position29d. Changing Word Order29e. Movable Modifiers29f. Using the Expletive and the Passive Voice for Emphasis29g. Emphasis by Repetition29h. Emphasis by Stylistic Contrast29i. Emphasis by Syntax29j. Emphasis by Punctuation30. Analyzing Sentences30a. The Chart Method30b. The Vertical Method30c. The Diagramming MethodCommon Sentence Problems31. Sentence Coherence32. Fragments33. Comma Splices34. Run-on (Fused) Sentences35. Misplaced Modifiers35a. Movability and Poor Placement35b. Squinting Modifiers36. Dangling Modifiers36a. Dangling Participial Phrases36b. Dangling Gerund Phrases36c. Dangling Infinitive Phrases36d. Dangling Elliptical Clauses36e. Dangling Prepositional Phrases and Appositives37. Mixed Constructions38. Faulty Alignment39. Shifts in Perspective: Inconsistent Point of View39a. Shifts in Tense39b. Shifts in Mood39c. Shifts in Voice39d. Shifts in Person of Pronoun39e. Shifts in Number of Pronoun40. Faulty Parallelism40a. With Coordinate Elements40b. With Correlative Conjunctions40c. In a Series41. Faulty Coordination: Logic, Emphasis, and Unity42. Faulty LogicPart Five: PunctuationIntroduction: The Principles of Good Punctuation43. Internal Punctuation: Comma, Semicolon, Colon, and Dash43a. Comma43b. Semicolon43c. Colon43d. DashHow to Use Commas, Semicolons, Colons, and Dashes44. Between Independent Clauses44a. Comma and Coordinating Conjunction44b. Semicolon and Coordinating Conjunction44c. Dash and Coordinating Conjunction44d. Semicolon Without Coordinating Conjunction44e. Comma Splice44f. Commas Alone Between Independent Clauses44g. Semicolons with Conjunctive Adverbs and Transitions44h. Dashes and Colons Without Coordinating Conjunctions44i. Run-on (Fused) Sentences45. To Set Off Adverbial Clauses45a. Commas with Introductory Clauses45b. Commas with Concluding Clauses46. To Set Off Introductory and Concluding Words and Phrases46a. Adverbs and Adverbial Phrases46b. Participles and Participial Phrases46c. Absolute Phrases47. To Set Off Concluding Summaries and Appositives48. To Set Off Nonrestrictive Elements48a. Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Relative Clauses48b. Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Appositives48c. Because Clauses and Phrases48d. Modifiers with such as49. Between Items in a Series49a. Commas49b. Semicolons49c. Dashes49d. Colons49e. Series of AdjectivesPunctuation Marks That Come in Pairs50. Punctuating Sentence Interrupters50a. Interrupters Set Off with Commas50b. Interrupters Set Off with Dashes50c. Interrupters Set Off with Parentheses51. Parentheses52. Brackets53. End Punctuation: Period, Question Mark, and Exclamation Point53a. Period53b. Question Mark53c. Exclamation Point54. Punctuation with Quotations: Using Quotation Marks54a. Direct Speech54b. Direct Quotation from a Source54c. Single Quotation Marks: Quotation Within Quotation54d. With Verbs of Speaking Before Quotations54e. With Verbs of Speaking After Quotations54f. With Quotations Set Off by Indention54g. Words Used in a Special Sense54h. Other Marks with Quotation Marks54i. Ellipses for Omissions54j. Brackets for Additions, Changes, and Comments55. Avoiding Common Errors in Punctuation55a. Unwanted Comma Between Subject and Verb55b. Unwanted Comma Between Verb and Object or Complement55c. Unwanted Comma After Last Adjective of a Series55d. Unwanted Comma Between Coordinated Words and Phrases55e. Commas with Emphatic Repetition55f. Unwanted Comma with Short Introductory or Parenthetical Element55g. Unwanted Comma with Restrictive Appositive55h. Unwanted Comma with Indirect Quotation55i. Unwanted Question Mark After Indirect Question55j. Unwanted Semicolon with Subordinate Element55k. Unwanted Colon After Incomplete Construction55-l. Unwanted Double Punctuation: Comma or Semicolon with a DashPart Six: Mechanics and SpellingIntroduction: The Conventions of Mechanics and Spelling56. Formatting an Essay57. Abbreviations57a. Titles Before Proper Names57b. Titles and Degrees After Proper Names57c. Standard Words and Abbreviations Used with Dates and Numerals57d. Agencies and Organizations Known by Their Initials57e. Scientific and Technical Terms Known by Their Initials57f. Latin Expressions Commonly Used in English57g. Terms in Official Titles58. Capitalization58a. Names and Nicknames58b. Professional and Honorific Titles58c. Words Designating Family Relationships58d. Names of Places and Nationalities58e. Months, Days, and Holidays58f. Religious Names58g. Names of Organizations and Their Members58h. Names of Institutions, Sections of Government, Historical Events, and Buildings58i. Academic Courses and Languages58j. Derivatives of Proper Nouns58k. Abbreviations of Proper Nouns58-l. I and 058m. Titles of Written and Other Works58n. First Words of Sentences58-o. First Words of Quotations That Are Sentences58p. First Words of Sentences Within Parentheses58q. First Words of Sentences Following Colons58r. With Personification and for Emphasis59. Titles59a. Italics for Whole or Major Works59b. Quotation Marks for Short Works and Parts of Longer Works59c. Titles Within Titles60. Italics60a. Names of Ships, Trains, and Planes60b. Non-English Words and Phrases60c. Words Referred to as Words60d. For Emphasis61. Numerals61a. Time of Day61b. Dates61c. Addresses61d. Technical and Mathematical Numbers61e. Parts of a Written Work61f. Statistics and Numbers of More Than Two Words61g. Avoiding Numerals at the Beginning of a Sentence61h. Commas with Numerals61i. Hyphens to Indicate Ranges61j. Apostrophes to Indicate Omissions62. Spelling Rules and Common Causes of Error62a. ie or ei62b. Prefixes62c. Suffixes62d. Changes in Spelling of Roots62e. Faulty Pronunciation62f. Confusion with Other Words62g. Homophones and Other Words Sometimes Confused62h. One Word or Two?62i. Hyphenation62j. Compound Nouns62k. Compound Modifiers62-l. Hyphenated Verbs62m. Plurals62n. Possessives62-o. Contractions62p. Third-Person-Singular Verbs in the Present Tense62q. Spelling ListPart Seven: DictionIntroduction: Style and the Larger Elements of Composition63. About Dictionaries63a. Kinds of Dictionaries63b. Features of Dictionaries63c. Three Sample Dictionary Entries64. Level64a. Slang64b. Informal or Colloquial Usage64c.. "Fine Writing"65. Figurative Language65a. Inappropriate Metaphors65b. Overextended Metaphors65c. Dead Metaphors65d. Mixed Metaphors66. Concrete and Abstract Diction; Weak Generalizations66a. Concreteness and Specificity66b. Weak Generalizations67. Connotation and Denotation68. Euphemism69. Wrong Word70. Idiom71. Wordiness and Concision71a. Excessive Expletive Constructions71b. Unnecessary Repetition71c. Redundancy71d. Ready-Made Phrases71e. Triteness, Cliches71f. Overuse of Nouns71g. Nouns Used as Adjectives71h. Jargon72. Usage Checklist: Some Troublesome Words and PhrasesPart Eight: Research, Writing, and DocumentationIntroduction: Producing a High-Quality Research Essay73. Preparing to Find Sources73a. Libraries and Databases73b. The Internet74. Creating a Research Plan74a. Compiling a Preliminary Bibliography74b. Developing a Working Bibliography75. Taking Notes75a. The Note Itself75b. The Source75c. The Slug75d. Recording Your Own Ideas76. Preparing Preliminary Assignments76a. Academic Proposals76b. Annotated Bibliographies76c. Critical Summaries77. Writing the Essay78. Quotation, Paraphrase, Summary, and Plagiarism78a. Legitimate Paraphrase78b. Illegitimate Paraphrase78c. Paraphrase and Quotation Mixed78d. Summary78e. Maintaining Academic Integrity and Avoiding Plagiarism78f. Integrating and Contextualizing Quotations79. Acknowledging Sources79a. "Common Knowledge"80. Methods of Documentation80a. The Name-Page Method (MLA Style)80b. The Name-Date Method (APA Style)80c. The Note Method (Chicago Style)80d. The Number Method (CSE Style)Appendices:Appendix 1: Sample Student Essays with Comments and GradesAppendix 2: Marking Symbols and Abbreviations ExplainedAppendix 3: Checklists for Use in Revising, Editing, and ProofreadingIndexList of Exercises