The Power of Critical Thinking: Canadian Edition

Paperback | March 7, 2016

byChris MacDonald, Lewis Vaughn

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This comprehensive and engaging introduction to the essential components of critical analysis uses a multidisciplinary approach to examine how psychological and social factors can impede clear thinking and lead to faulty reasoning. Emphasizing the importance of critical thinking to personaldevelopment and success, The Power of Critical Thinking provides students with the skills they need to engage meaningfully with the world around them - both inside and outside of the classroom.

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From the Publisher

This comprehensive and engaging introduction to the essential components of critical analysis uses a multidisciplinary approach to examine how psychological and social factors can impede clear thinking and lead to faulty reasoning. Emphasizing the importance of critical thinking to personaldevelopment and success, The Power of Critica...

Chris MacDonald is an associate professor at the Ted Rogers School of Business Management and the director of the Jim Pattison Ethical Leadership Program. He has published extensively in areas such as business ethics, bioethics, health care ethics, ethics and technology, and moral theory. Lewis Vaughn is an independent scholar and the...

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Format:PaperbackDimensions:560 pages, 10 × 8 × 0.67 inPublished:March 7, 2016Publisher:Oxford University PressLanguage:English

The following ISBNs are associated with this title:

ISBN - 10:0199018685

ISBN - 13:9780199018680

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Table of Contents

From the PublisherPrefacePart One: Basics1. The Power of Critical ThinkingWhy It MattersHow It Works- Claims and Reasons- Reasons and Arguments- Arguments in the RoughSummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizCritical Thinking and Writing ExerciseWriting Assignments2. The "Environment" of Critical ThinkingCategory 1: How We Think- Am I Really Special?- The Power of the GroupCategory 2: What We Think- Subjective Relativism- Social Relativism- SkepticismSummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizIntegrative ExercisesCritical Thinking and Writing ExerciseWriting Assignments3. Making Sense of ArgumentsArgument BasicsJudging ArgumentsFinding Missing PartsArgument PatternsDiagramming ArgumentsAssessing Long ArgumentsSummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizIntegrative ExercisesCritical Thinking and Writing ExerciseWriting AssignmentsPart Two: Reasons4. Reasons for Belief and DoubtWhen Claims ConflictExperts and EvidencePersonal Experience- Impairment- Expectation- InnumeracyFooling Ourselves- Resisting Contrary Evidence- Looking for Confirming Evidence- Preferring Available EvidenceClaims in the News- Inside the News- Sorting Out the NewsAdvertising and Persuasion- Identification- Slogans- Misleading Comparisons- Weasel WordsSummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizIntegrative ExercisesCritical Thinking and Writing ExerciseWriting Assignments5. Faulty ReasoningIrrelevant Premises- Genetic Fallacy- Appeal to the Person- Composition- Division- Equivocation- Appeal to Popularity- Appeal to Tradition- Appeal to Ignorance- Appeal to Emotion- Red Herring- Straw ManUnacceptable Premises- Begging the Question- False Dilemma- Slippery Slope- Hasty Generalization- Faulty AnalogySummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizIntegrative ExercisesCritical Thinking and Writing ExerciseWriting AssignmentsPart Three: Arguments6. Deductive Reasoning: Categorical LogicStatements and ClassesTranslations and Standard Form- Terms- QuantifiersDiagramming Categorical StatementsSizing Up Categorical SyllogismsSummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizIntegrative ExercisesWriting Assignments7. Deductive Reasoning: Propositional LogicConnectives and Truth Values- Conjunction- Disjunction- Negation- ConditionalChecking for Validity- Simple Arguments- Tricky Arguments- Streamlined EvaluationSummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizIntegrative ExercisesWriting Assignments8. Inductive ReasoningEnumerative Induction- Sample Size- Representativeness- Opinion PollsStatistical Syllogisms- Evaluating Statistical SyllogismsAnalogical Induction- Relevant Similarities- Relevant Dissimilarities- The Number of Instances Compared- Diversity among CasesCausal Arguments- Testing for Causes- Causal Confusions- Confusing Cause with Temporal Order- Necessary and Sufficient ConditionsMixed ArgumentsSummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizIntegrative ExercisesWriting AssignmentsPart Four: Explanations9. Inference to the Best ExplanationExplanations and Inference- Abductive ReasoningTheories and ConsistencyTheories and Criteria- Testability- Fruitfulness- Scope- Simplicity- ConservatismTelling Good Theories from Bad- A Doomed FlightSummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizIntegrative ExercisesWriting Assignments10. Judging Scientific TheoriesScience and Not ScienceThe Scientific MethodTesting Scientific TheoriesJudging Scientific Theories- Copernicus versus Ptolemy- Evolution versus CreationismScience and Weird TheoriesMaking Weird Mistakes- Leaping to the Weirdest TheoryMixing What Seems with What Is- Misunderstanding the PossibilitiesJudging Weird Theories- Talking with the DeadSummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizIntegrative ExercisesWriting Assignments11. Contexts of Application: Thinking Critically About Health, Law, and EthicsThinking Critically about Health and Health Care- Key Skills- Evaluating Health Claims in the News- Finding and Evaluating Expert Advice- Stumbling BlocksThinking Critically about the Law- Key Skills- Stumbling BlocksThinking Critically about Ethics- Key Skills- Stumbling BlocksSummaryField ProblemsSelf-Assessment QuizWriting AssignmentsAppendix A: Essays for EvaluationAppendix B: Answers to Select ExercisesGlossaryNotesIndexCredits

Editorial Reviews

"I have looked at perhaps 15 to 20 other textbooks, and I always come back to Vaughn and MacDonald. . . . The textbook is very friendly and approachable." --Kelly Booth, Thompson Rivers University